‘Reproduction in Humans’ Chapter, Made Easy

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The syllabus of Class 12 Biology includes a chapter called Human Reproduction under the unite called ‘Reproduction’. It basically deals with all the processes, functions, and significance of steps involved in Human reproduction. Humans are sexually reproducing, viviparous animals. The main events involved in the process of reproduction in humans include:


  •  Gametogenesis: Formation of male and female gametes in respective reproductive structures. The male gametes are called sperms and female gametes are called ovum.
  • Insemination: This process basically involves the transfer of sperms into the female genital tract.
  •  Fertilization: In this process, the male gametes fuses with the female gamete and fertilizes it.
  •  Formation of Zygote: The fertilized egg or ovum develops into a Zygote.
  • Formation of Blastocyst and its attachment on the uterine walls, which is called as implantation.
  • Gestation: This stage involves the embryonic development after implantation.
  • Parturition: This is the stage of delivery of the child.
The chapter NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Reproduction in Organism further discusses about the Male Reproductive System that includes the external genitalia,  accessory organs, and related ducts. Some of the most important male reproductive structures include Urethra, Ureter, Seminal Vesicle, prostate glands, vas deferens, testes, and others. Other accessory ducts in male reproductive systems include vas eferentia, rete testis, and epidydimis. The accessory glands in the male reproductive system are prostate gland,  bulbourethral glands, and seminal vesicles.
  • The female reproductive system includes a pair of ovaries along with a pair of oviducts, cervix, uterus, vagina and the external genitalia located in the pelvic region. These are integrated with mammary glands both structurally and functionally to facilitate processes like ovulation, pregnancy, birth and child care. Ovaries are the primary sex organs in the female reproductive system and produce the female gametes and other ovarian hormones.
  • Further, the topic deals with the process of Gametogenesis. It is the process through which both testes and ovaries produce sperms and ovum. In case of sperms, the development takes place in the testes and is called Spermatogenesis. The immature spermatogonia undergoes series of mitotic and meiotic divisions to form the functional structures called spermatozoa
  • The process of formation of female gametes is known as oogenesis. The process is initiated during the stage of embryonic development. The process describes the development of secondary oocyte from the primary oocyte.  The reproductive cycle in females is called the Menstrual cycle. The first menstruation begins at puberty and is called menarche. The cycle repeats at an average interval of 28 or 29 days. It occurs only when the egg is not fertilized and one egg is released during the middle of each cycle.
  • The CBSE class 12 Biology Chapter 4 also includes the processes called Fertilization and Implantation: After insemination, the sperms move rapidly to reach the ovum at the ampullary-isthmic junction. The process of fusion of a sperm with an egg is called Fertilization. This is followed by the attachment of the zygote to the uterine walls. This is further followed by the formation of placenta between the maternal body and developing embryo. The average duration of pregnancy in humans in about 9 months, which is called as Gestation period. The process of child birth or parturition generally occurs after 9 months.
Students can learn more about human reproduction and related chapters through the course provided at their schools.
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